Written by: Dr. Jacquie Jacob, University of KentuckySource: https://articles.extension.org/pages/68126/newcastle-disease-in-poultryNewcastle disease, also called ND or pneumoencephalitis, is caused by paramyxovirus. The highly contagious and lethal form of Newcastle disease is known as viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease, or VVND. (The term viscerotropic indicates that the virus attacks the internal organs; velogenic indicates that the disease is highly pathogenic.) VVND is also referred to as exotic Newcastle disease or Asiatic Newcastle disease. Newcastle disease affects all birds of all ages. In humans and mammals, the virus causes mild inflammation of the eye.The Newcastle virus can be transmitted through the air within short distances. Sick birds can transfer the virus directly to flock mates through body secretions and fecal material. The virus can also contaminate shoes, persons who work with or near birds, tires, dirty equipment, feed sacks, crates, and so on, and be transmitted from flock to flock. Wild birds are another source of infection. The Newcastle virus is transmitted through the egg, but infected embryos typically die before hatching.
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